Carob uses

In this page you will find information regarding with:
Carob Syrup – carob extracts – d-pinitol
Carob powder
Carob seed uses – LBG
Propagation – Cultivation
Human Food
Human Health
Other uses(Carob as biofuel, Desertification inhibitor,Livestock feed)

First some books for general information

Carob tree, Ceratonia siliqua L.
Author: Ignacio Batlle Caravaca; Joan Tous Martí; International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. Publisher: Rome, Italy : IPGRI, ©1997.
The carob in California
Author: Ira J Condit; Myer E Jaffa; F W Albro,  Publisher: Berkeley, Calif., University of California Press, 1919.

Report on the carob-tree / by P. G. Gennadius director of Agricultur.
Traditional ways for consumption of carob described in a 1900’s book which you can find digitized in Greek here or at by searching with the word  “carob”.

The carob tree is tolerant to heat and drought and is well adapted to the Mediterranean climate. The fruit is used in both human nutrition and animal feed. Carob pod contains high amount of carbohydrates, proteins and low levels of fat and significant amounts of potassium, calcium and polyphenols. Therefore, it plays a significant role in human health. A natural thickening substance is produced from the endosperm and used in confectionery. It also has uses in
pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Additionally, the carob can truly be considered a multipurpose tree suitable for preventing soil erosion and for rural area development in the Mediterranean basin and Worldwide.
It is important to establish quality standards for all products intended for human consumption. For example in the market there is carob syrup with sugar content of 50% and another 80%. There are carob chocolate containing 5% and another 20% and both has the name carob chocolate and the same situation with carob spread.
There are and carob products, derived from other plants outside of Ceratonia siliqua.

 The following articles are some indicative separated for each carob use and not  substitute all information that can be retrieved from scientific journals databases.

  1. Carob Syrup – carob extracts – d-pinitol

1.1 Chemical, Functional and Sensory Properties of Carob Juice

1.2 Production and purification of a sugar syrup from carob pods

1.3 Yield improvements in carob sugar extraction

1.4 Concentration of D-pinitol in carob extract by using multi-stage enrichment processes

1.5 Relationship Between Sugar Profile and D-Pinitol Content of Pods of Wild and Cultivated Types of Carob Bean ( Ceratonia siliqua L.)

1.6 Effects of extraction conditions on the recovery of phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant activity of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) pulp

1.7 Evaluation of carob pulp as fermentation substrate for biohydrogen and organic acids production:sugars richness vs toxicity potential

1.8 Identification and quantification of polyphenols in carob fruits (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and derived products by HPLC-UV-ESI/MSn.

1.9 Major and Trace Elements in Different Types of Moroccan Honeys

1.10 Antioxidants from aqueous decoction of carob pods biomass (Ceretonia siliqua L.): Optimisation using response surface methodology and phenolic profile by capillary electrophoresis

1.11 Antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, and total phenolic content of extracts from three genders of carob tree barks growing in Morocco

1.12 Relationship Between Sugar Profile and D-Pinitol Content of Pods of Wild and Cultivated Types of Carob Bean 

1.13 Some compositional properties and mineral contents of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) fruit, flour and syrup.

1.14 Study Of Kinetics Of The D-Pinitol Extraction From Carob Pods Using Supercritical Co2

1,15 Sucrose Supplementation during Traditional Carob Syrup Processing Affected its Chemical Characteristics and Biological Activities

1.16 Sugar composition and yield of syrup production from the pulp of Moroccan carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua L.)

1.17 Supercritical extraction of carob kibbles (Ceratonia siliqua L.)

1.18 Supercritical, ultrasound and conventional extracts from carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) biomass: effect on the phenolic profile and antiproliferative activity.

1.19 Syrup of natural carob sugars and a process for its production

1.20 Syrup of natural carob sugars and a process for its production using Response Surface Methodology 

1.21 Ultrasound-assisted extraction of d-pinitol from carob pods using Response Surface Methodology. 

1.22 Mannitol production by lactic acid bacteria grown in supplemented carob syrup.

1.23 Optimization of Microwave Assisted Extraction of polyphenols from Carob Kibbles (Ceratonia siliqua L.)

1.24 Extraction Kinetics of Phenolics from Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) Kibbles Using Environmentally Benign Solvents.

  1. 25 Optimization of Production of Carob Pulp Syrup from Different Populations of Moroccan Carob

1.26 Optimization of Extraction of D-pinitol and Phenolics from Cultivated and Wild Types of Carob Pods Using Response Surface Methodology

1.27 Processing, physico-chemical and functional properties of carob molasses and powders

1.28 Determination of D-pinitol in carob syrup.

1.29 Isolation and Identification of Cyclitols in Carob Pods

2. Carob powder

2.1 Amino Acid and Sugar Contents of Wild and Cultivated Carob (Ceratonia siliqua) Pods Collected in Different Harvest Periods

2.2 Effect of roasting process on phenolic, antioxidant and browning properties of carob powder

2.3 Impact of Carob Pods Powder on the Physical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream

2.4 Carob: a healthy replacement to cocoa

2.5 Effects of combined microwave-hot air roasting on the physicochemical and sensory properties of carob powder

2.6 Sugar composition and D-pinitol content of carob powders as affected by different roasting processes

2.7 Optimization of roasting conditions as an useful approach for increasing antioxidant activity of carob powder

2.8 Nutritional characterisation and bioactive components of commercial carobs flours

2.9 Physical properties of cocoa substitutes

2.10 Cocoa substitute: Evaluation of sensory qualities and flavour stability

2.11 The effects of molasses powder and carob flour on basic chocolate cake [microform] /

2.12 Carob bean powder (arobon) in the treatment & prevention of diarrhea in premature infants].

2.13 Processing and characterization of carob powder

2.14 Carob pulp preparation rich in insoluble dietary fiber and polyphenols enhances lipid oxidation and lowers postprandial acylated ghrelin in humans.

2.15 Nutrient content of carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flour prepared commercially and domestically.

2.16 Processing and characterization of carob powder

2.17 Effects of Roasting Temperature on the Aroma Components of Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.)

2.18 Extraction and Identification of Natural Antioxidants from Liquorices (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and Carob (Ceratonia siliqua) and its Application in El-Mewled El-Nabawy Sweets (Sesames and Folia) (Phenols Flavonoids)

3. LBG – carob seeds

Locust Bean Gum: Processing, Properties and Food Applications -A Review.

The fine structures of carob and guar galactomannans

Yield and composition of carob bean gum produced from different Moroccan populations of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) ok

Optimization of Extraction Process of Carob Bean Gum Purified from Carob Seeds by Response Surface Methodology ok

Impact of purification and fractionation process on the chemical structure and physical properties of locust bean gum.

Locust bean gum: Exploring its potential for biopharmaceutical applications.

Isolation and chemical evaluation of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) seed germ

Composition and structure of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) germ proteins

Phytochemical profile, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) germ flour extracts.

Improvement of the electrophoretic protein profiles of Leguminosae gums extracts using gamanase and application to the evaluation of carob–guar mixtures

Investigation of molecular weight distribution of LBG galactomannan for flours prepared from individual seeds, mixtures, and commercial samples

Evaluation of fruit and seed diversity and characterization of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) cultivars in Algarve region

The analysis of crude and purified locust bean gum: A comparison of samples from different carob tree populations in Tunisia

Identification of Leguminosae gums and evaluation of carob-guar mixtures by capillary zone electrophoresis of protein extracts.

4. Propagation -Cultivation

Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the functional mechanisms associated with drought tolerance in carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.)

A micropropagation system for carob

Rapid Vegetative Propagation Method for Carob

Categories of Carob Tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) from Morocco

Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant: Production optimization and insecticidal activity against the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae

The cultivation of the carob tree (ceratonia siliqua)

Carob Moth in Afghanistan

Carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua L.) regenerated in vitro can acclimatize successfully to match the field performance of seed-derived plants

Changes in the physical properties of two Acacia compost-based growing media and their effects on carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) seedling development

Characterization and pathogenicity of Pestalotiopsis uvicola causing black leaf spot on carob ( Ceratonia siliqua L.) in Italy

Effect of Fruit Moisture Content on Mortality, Development, and Fitness of the Carob Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

Effects of moisture content and compression positions on mechanical properties of carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua L.)

Effects of seasonal acclimation on cold tolerance and biochemical status of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller, last instar larvae.

First record of Goniozus legneri Gordh (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), the larval ectoparasitoid of carob moth, in Iran

Infestation and prevalence situation of Carob moth Apomyelois ceratoniae Zell.(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in pomegranate orchards in Şanlıurfa

Inoculation of Ceratonia siliqua L. with native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi mixture improves seedling establishment under greenhouse conditions

Karyotype, sex chromatin and sex chromosome differentiation in the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

Kinetic, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies of the Biosorption of Heay Metals by Ceratonia Siliqua Bark

Mass-Rearing and Field Performance of Irradiated Carob Moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in Tunisia

Micropropagation of carob, Ceratonia siliqua L., by apex culture

Micropropagation of the female tree Ceratonia siliqua L.

Study of the effect of irrigation on the growth of carob plants in eastern Morocco: planting with seedlings a year

Biology of Apanteles myeloenta (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

Host plant-associated population variation in the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in Iran: A geometric morphometric analysis suggests a nutritional basis.

Biochemical characterization of digestive proteases and carbohydrases of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller)(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

The effect of nitrogen source on photosynthesis of carob at high CO2 concentrations

Nitrogen assimilation and transport in carob plants

The use of macronutrients and water in marginal Mediterranean areas: the case of carob-tree

Tolerance of young (Ceratonia siliqua L.) carob rootstock to NaCl

Seasonal variations of leaf water potential and growth in fertigated carob-trees (Ceratonia siliqua L.)

Nutritional evaluation of nitrogen and potassium fertilization of carob tree under dry-farming conditions

A new medium formulation for in vitro rooting of carob tree based on leaf macronutrients concentrations

Genetic diversity revealed by EST-SSR markers in carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.)

Carob Cercosporiosis

5. Human food

5.1 Effect of legume flours on baking characteristics of gluten-free bread

5.2 Influence of Different Carob Fruit Flours (Ceratonia siliqua L.) on Wheat Dough Performance and Bread Quality

5.3 Use of farinograph measurements for predicting extensograph traits of bread dough enriched with carob fibre and oat wholemeal  OK

5.4 Nutrient content of carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flour prepared commercially and domestically.  OK

5.5 Mathematical approach of structural and textural properties of gluten free bread enriched with carob flour

5.6 Compositional analysis of locally cultivated carob (Ceratonia siliqua) cultivars and development of nutritional food products for a range of market sectors

5.7 Effect of Carob Flour Addition on the Rheological Properties of Gluten-Free Breads

5.8 Development of gluten free bread containing carob flour and resistant starch

5.9 Nutritional characterisation and bioactive components of commercial carobs flours

5.10 Effects of pseudocereals, legumes and inulin addition on selected nutritional properties and glycemic index of whole grain wheat-based biscuits

5.11 Glycemic response to carob (Ceratonia siliqua L) in healthy subjects and with the in vitro hydrolysis index.

5.12 Changes in bioactive phytochemical content and in vitro antioxidant activity of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) as influenced by fruit ripening

5.13 Effect of HPMC on the quality of wheat-free bread made from carob germ flour-starch mixtures.

5.14 Effects of different prebiotic stabilisers and types of molasses on physicochemical, sensory, colour and mineral characteristics of probiotic set yoghurt

5.15 Effect of carob flour substitution on chemical and functional properties of tarhana

5.16 Physicochemical, mineral and sensory properties of set‐type yoghurts produced by addition of grape, mulberry and carob molasses (Pekmez) at different ratios

5.17 Interpretation of mechanical spectra of carob fibre and oat wholemeal-enriched wheat dough using non-linear regression models

5.18 Producing of gluten free biscuits for celiac patients

5.19 Effect of the addition of different fibres on wheat dough performance and bread quality

5.20 Carob bean in food and feed: Current status and future potentials – A critical appraisal

5.21 Fruit trees’ survival ability in an arid desert environment without irrigation in the Negev Highlands of Southern Israel

5.22 Effect of high salts concentrations on the growth of rhizobia and responses to added osmotica

5.23 Comparison of some physical and chemical features of carob genotypes

6. Human Health

Functional Components of Carob Fruit: Linking the Chemical and Biological Space

Short-term effects of a low glycemic index carob-containing snack on energy intake, satiety, and glycemic response in normal-weight, healthy adults: Results from two randomized trials

The impact of extrusion on the nutritional composition, dietary fiber and in vitro digestibility of gluten-free snacks based on rice, pea and carob flour blends

Carob kibble—a sweet and healthy natural ingredient

Carob Kibble: A Bioactive-Rich Food Ingredient

A preliminary study into the beneficial effects on the lipid profile in humans of a polyphenol-rich carob-fiber functional food in a milk matrix.

Fig, Carob, Pistachio, and Health

Analytical approach and effects of condensed tannins in carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua) on feed intake, digestive and metabolic responses of kids

Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of carob tree fruit pulps are strongly influenced by gender and cultivar.  OK

Biochemical studies on nephroprotective effect of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) growing in Egypt

Carob fibre compounds modulate parameters of cell growth differently in human HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells than in LT97 colon adenoma cells.

Carob is not allergenic in peanut-allergic subjects.

Carob Pod Insoluble Fiber Exerts Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects in Rabbits through Sirtuin-1 and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Coactivator-1α

Carob pulp preparation rich in insoluble dietary fibre and polyphenols increases plasma glucose and serum insulin responses in combination with a glucose load in humans.

Does an extract of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) have chemopreventive potential related to oxidative stress and drug metabolism in human colon cells?

Hepatoprotective effect of carob against acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rat.

Nephroprotective Hepatoprotective Potential and Antioxidant Role of Carob Pods (Cerotonia siliqua L.) against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Toxicity in Rats

In vitro fermentation of diets incorporating carob pulp using inoculum from rabbit caecum

Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of crude methanolic extract of pods of Ceratonia siliqua L. against some pathogens and spoilage bacteria

In vitro prospective effects of various traditional herbal coffees consumed in Anatolia linked to neurodegeneration

Matrix composition effect on the digestibility of carob flour phenols by an in-vitro digestion model

Effect of water extracts of carob pods, tannic acid, and their derivatives on the morphology and growth of microorganisms.

Evaluation and Preservation of Genetic Resources of Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) in Southern Italy for Pharmaceutical Use

Insoluble Carob Fiber Rich in Polyphenols Lowers Total and LDL Cholesterol in Hypercholesterolemic Sujects


7. General

A thermostable recombinant endo-β-(1→4)-mannanase from Clostridium thermocellum: Biochemical characterization and manno-oligosaccharides production.

Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of carob tree fruit pulps are strongly influenced by gender and cultivar.

Carob agroforestry industry: An assessment of its potential for the low rainfall Murray valley region

Carob residues as a substrate and a soil organic amendment

Tunisian carob ( Ceratonia siliqua L.) populations: Morphological variability of pods and kernel

Carob processing in Sicily: Technological aspects and products

Variability in the pod and seed parameters and nuclear DNA content of Tunisian populations

Composition and molecular weight distribution of carob germ protein fractions.

Compositional analysis of locally cultivated carob (Ceratonia siliqua) cultivars and development of nutritional food products for a range of market sectors

Determination of chemical composition of anatolian carob pod (ceratonia siliqua l.): sugars, amino and organic acids, minerals and phenolic compounds

Dietary Carob Pods on Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Fattening Pigs

Effects of carob bean gum on performance, nutrient digestibility and Salmonella enterica var. Enteritidis colonisation in chickens

Enhanced Lactic Acid Production from Carob Extract by Lactobacillus casei Using Invertase Pretreatment

Ethanol production from carob extract by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Bioethanol production from carob pods by solid-state fermentation with Zymomonas mobilis

Evaluation and optimization of ethanol production from carob pod extract by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology.

Evaluation of bioethanol production from carob pods by Zymomonas mobilis and saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid submerged fermentation.

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using carob leaf extract and its antibacterial activity

Influence of pH on citric acid production by Aspergillus niger under submerged fermentation in carob pod extract

Kinetics of sugars consumption and ethanol inhibition in carob pulp fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and fed-batch cultures.

Carob Fruit as Source of Carbon and Energy for Production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Lipid evaluation of cultivated and wild carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) seed oil growing in Turkey

Mineral composition of pods and seeds of wild and grafted carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) fruits

Optimization of ethanol production from carob pod extract using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in a stirred tank bioreactor.

Palynological, physico-chemical and organoleptic characteristics of carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) honey from Sicily

Physical and chemical characterization of Ceratonia siliqua L. germplasm in Turkey

Process design and economic analysis of a hypothetical bioethanol production plant using carob pod as feedstock.

Seed size variability: from carob to carats.

Some compositional properties and mineral contents of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) fruit, flour and syrup.

Study of docosahexaenoic acid production by the heterotrophic microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii CCMP 316 using carob pulp as a promising carbon source

Variation of quality characteristics in Greek and Turkish carob pods during fruit development

Effects of tannin-containing diets on small ruminant meat quality

Generation of expressed sequence tags from carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flowers for gene identification and marker development

Immobilization of Aspergillus niger in Polyurethane Foam for Citric Acid Production from Carob Pod Extract

Characterization of carob fruits (Ceratonia siliqua L.), cultivated in Spain for agroindustrial use

Recovery of essential oils from carobs through various extraction methods

Carob pulp as raw material for production of the biocontrol agent P. agglomerans PBC-1.

Carob-tree as CO2 Sink in the Carbon Market

Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Phenolic Compounds of Carob Leaves Grown in Egypt,

Isolation and structure elucidation of the major individual polyphenols in carob fibre (and about flavonoids)

Replacement of cereal grains by orange pulp and carob pulp in faba bean-based diets fed to lambs: effects on growth performance and meat quality

Fruit and seed diversity of domesticated carob ( Ceratonia siliqua L.) in Morocco

Leaf surface characteristics and wetting in Ceratonia siliqua L

Cost-effective bioethanol production at low content of nitrogen source from carob syrup

Antioxidant Properties and Total Phenolic Content of Three Varieties of Carob Tree Leaves from Morocco

Determination of Chemical Composition of Carob (Ceratonia siliqua): Protein, Fat, Carbohydrates, and Tannins

The effect of different proportions of carob pod meal in the diet on the performance of calves and goats

Effect of different temperatures on ethanol fermentation from carob pod extract by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Leucoanthocyanins and related phenolic compounds of carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua)

Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenols in Carob Pods

Compositional changes of major chemical compounds in Greek carob pods during development

Antifungal activity of Moroccan medicinal plants against citrus sour rot agent Geotrichum candidum

Valorization of carob biomass for bioethanol production

Carob as a carbon source for fermentation technology


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